English 1: Grammar and Composition Practice 1 Answers

English 1: Grammar and Composition Practice 1 Answers

Question 1

Write an application in response to the advertisement given below:                                    Format: Formal

  1. Response to advertisement dated…….. (name of the newspaper)
  2. Introduction: Name and essential details such as age, place, and so on.
  3. Applying for Part-Time Salesperson. Name of the Home Appliance Company.
  4. Name of the discipline, year, percentage/ marks obtained.
  5. Fluency in English.
  6. Copies of Certificates enclosed.
  7. Request to consider the application.

Question 2

Re-write the following sentences according to the instructions given after each. Make other changes that may be necessary, but do not change the meaning of each.

  1. Never (before) has he done such a stupid mistake.
  2. I advised John to consult a doctor.
  3. The player’s decision to retire saddened the fans.
  4. Do you exercise daily as I do?
  5. Who substituted the broken umbrella for a good one?
  6. People say that Camilla has been a diplomat.
  7. Anoushka wishes that she had studied regularly.
  8. Despite being rich, Job is not unsympathetic towards the needy.
  9. Jolly wished that she might win the lottery.
  10. Had he not injured his foot, he would have won the race.

Question 3

Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition.

  1. He has a passion for reading detective stories.
  2. I congratulated him on his success.
  3. He was so amusing that all laughed at him
  4. I ran into Graham in the restaurant.
  5. The book consists of 21 chapters.


English 1: Grammar and Composition Practice 1

English 1: Grammar and Composition Practice 1

Question 1
Write an application in response to the advertisement given below:

Suitable young Salespersons- on Part-Time basis-
to market electronic appliances for a leading Home Appliance Company.
Candidates should be at least a graduate and should be fluent in English.

Question 2

Re-write the following sentences according to the instructions given after each. Make other changes that may be necessary, but do not change the meaning of each.
1. He has never made such a stupid mistake before.
[Begin: Never…]
2. If I were you, John, I would consult a doctor.
[Use: the correct form of advice]
3. The fans were saddened when the player decide to retire.
[Use: noun form of decision]
4. I exercise daily. What about you?
[Combine the sentences]
5. Who replaced the good umbrella with a broken one?
[Use: substitute]
6. Camilla is said to have been a diplomat.
[Begin: People…]
7. Anoushka did not study regularly. She regrets it now.
[Use: wishes]
8. Rich as Job is, he is not unsympathetic towards the needy.
[Begin: Despite…]
9. Jolly said, ‘Let me win the lottery.’
[Change into indirect speech]
10. But for the injured foot, he would have won the race.
[Begin: Had…]
Question 3
Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition.
1. He has a passion ……… reading detective stories.
2. I congratulated him ……… his success.
3. He was so amusing that all laughed ……… him
4. I ran ……… Graham in the restaurant.
5. The book consists ……… 21 chapters.

Old Man at the Bridge: Ernest Hemingway: A Critique

Old Man at the Bridge: Ernest Hemingway: A Critique

The short story Old Man at the Bridge by Ernest Hemingway wholly demonstrates the vicious repercussions of war on disinterested innocents. The short story, narrated by a nameless soldier, sensitively portrays the sorry plight of the refugees who are displaced by war.

The action takes places at a pontoon bridge near the Ebro Delta on an Easter Sunday during the Spanish Civil War. All the refugees of that area were crossing the bridge to protect themselves from the impending attack by the enemy troops. The young soldier was on a mission to cross the bridge and find out how far the enemy had advanced.

After the soldier had scanned the region for any sign of the enemy troops, he noticed an old man still sitting at the pontoon bridge. The seventy-six-year-old man wore black dusty clothes and his face was dusty grey. He wore steel-rimmed spectacles which suggested that he was neither a shepherd nor a herdsman. He appeared weak and exhausted. The soldier asked the old man where he came from. The old man replied that he was from Sans Carlos. He had already walked about 12 kilometres from his hometown, San Carlos, and was weary and exhausted. Therefore, even after the soldier had advised him to flee, the old man did not move.

The officer asked the old man about his political loyalty and he replied that had no politics. In San Carlos, he owned two goats, a cat and some pigeons which he had to leave behind because of the artillery. His whole life revolved around his animals and his hometown. He was just taking care of his animals without harming anybody just like any other ordinary individual unconcerned with the ongoing war. When he was told to move to safety in view of the advancing enemy troops, he was worried about the safety of his animals and wanted to remain with them.

The old man is more concerned for the safety of his animals than for his own safety. The animals stand for different qualities. The pigeons, for example, represent peace and harmony and the fact that they fly away, away from the war, maybe is a reference to the refugees who flee from the war to a safer place. The cat being a symbol of independence, does not need anybody to survive, but the goat is often used as a sacrificial animal and this probably represents the old man and his situation. Like a goat which is sacrificed, the old man’s fate is sealed. The old man’s obsession with the safety of his animals brings out Hemingway’s point that this mad war unnecessarily destroys even such useful human beings who help to sustain life. The narrator, the young soldier, advised the old man to cross the pontoon bridge to save himself from the impending assault of the advancing enemies. Although the old man got up and tried to move, he swayed and teetered. So, he sat down again in the dust as he was too tired to move. He finally resigned himself to his fate and the imminent doom.

We, along with the young soldier, arrive at the painful realisation that the old man will not be able to move on and will probably die at the bridge. The irony is that like a goat which is sacrificed, the old man`s fate is sealed on an Easter Sunday, a day of hope and faith.

Neither the old peasant nor the war is identified by name in the story, for the idea of the tragic sacrifices of uninvolved men in every war is universal. The old man epitomises the victims of war- men, women and children who had to leave their home and their normal life as victims of a war with which they have nothing to do.

Poetry Study Aid: The Heart of the Tree Henry Cuyler Bunner

The Heart of the Tree

Henry Cuyler Bunner

From time immemorial, there is an all-embracing attachment of man with Nature, particularly, his dependence on trees. Trees are essential for his survival. However, as time passed man’s attitude to Nature, and to trees, were inimical

Heart of a Tree

 and disastrous. There has been massive deforestation because of our greed for agricultural land and timber and necessity of cheap fuel. This large-scale deforestation remains, even today, a menace to the biodiversity of our environment.
In our times, it is significant that we comprehend our role in preserving the balance of the environment in Nature for our own benefit and survival. We should review our stance towards Nature where we realise the importance of the trees. Trees are of great importance to man in all spheres of his life. The planting of a tree is not merely a mechanical action but an act of personal, social and global import. The planting of a tree is a gesture that proclaims one’s intention to serve humanity since the tree benefits not only the individual that plants it but also the society and, in a wider scheme of things, the humanity. In the poem The Heart of the Tree, the poet Henry Cuyler Bunner presents the beneficial aspects of planting a tree both to the person who plants a tree and to the society and, overall, to the humanity. The poem not only appreciates the action of planting a tree but also honours the heart of a person who does this noble and benevolent act.

The poem consists of three stanzas of nine lines each and all the three stanzas begin with a question and the poet himself gives the answer to the question. The poem with its simple and vivid use of diction has an attractive rhyme scheme ababbccaa for each stanza. The meticulous choice of words coupled with the rhyming lines gives the poem an alluring musical quality. The repetition of the same question as a refrain in the beginning of each stanza of the poem is a poetic technique, known as Hypophora, employed by the poet to accentuate the theme of the poem to his readers.
Hypophora also referred to as Anthypophora, is a figure of speech in which the speaker poses a question and then he himself answers the question. It is different from a Rhetorical question where the answer is implied or not necessary. (A Rhetorical question usually has an obvious answer but you have asked the question to make a point, to persuade or for literary effect.)
Stanza One
The poem begins with a question – What does he plant who plants a tree? – that delivers the spirit of the whole poem, that is, the worth of planting a tree and the rest of the stanza is the poet’s answer to the question the significance and value of planting a tree.
A plant grows upwards as if it aspires to get in touch with the sun and the sky so that they get a new friend in a tree. Moreover, the tree needs sunlight and air to stay alive. Also, the trees appear to soak up the heat and relieve the earth from the sweltering sun.
The poet now says that by planting a tree, man plants a flag that flies freely in the gentle breeze. The poet here compares the leafy branches of the tree to a flag and the trunk of the tree to the splendid shaft or pole of the flag that remains firm and tall.
A tree also becomes a home for the birds singing melodiously high in the sky, close to heaven. Hence, by planting a tree, man renders the earth inhabitable for birds and facilitates in the conservation of the environment. In the serene and joyful twilight, man hears the symphonic song of these birds that twitter in harmony to the melody of the heaven.
Thus, in the first stanza of the poem, the poet highlights the significance of trees in sustaining the splendour of nature. The choice of the words such as ‘heaven anigh’, ‘heaven’s harmony’ and ‘towering high’ emphasises that the action of planting a tree is certainly a blissful and glorious deed.

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The Quest of the Golden Fleece

 The Quest of the Golden Fleece


Athamas, a king, gets tired of his first wife, Nephele, and marries a second, Ino. Ino wants Nephele’s son, Phrixus, out of the way so her own son can inherit the throne. Hermes sends a flying golden ram to rescue Phrixus and his sister, Helle, who falls off the ram and dies. Phrixus safely reaches the land of Colchis, where he sacrifices the ram to Zeus and gives its skin—the Golden Fleece—to Colchis’s king, Aetes.

Meanwhile, a man named Pelias has usurped the throne of Phrixus’s uncle, a Greek king. Jason, the deposed king’s son, grows up and returns to reclaim the throne. En route to Pelias’s kingdom, Jason loses a sandal. Pelias is afraid when he sees Jason approach, as an oracle has told him that he will be overthrown by a stranger wearing only one sandal. The wicked Pelias pretends to acquiesce but says that the gods have told him that the Golden Fleece must be retrieved for the kingdom first. This is a lie—Pelias assumes that anyone sent on that dangerous journey will never come back. Jason, intrigued by the challenge, assembles a remarkable group of heroes to help him, including Hercules, Theseus, Peleus, and Orpheus. Their ship is named the Argo, so the group is called the Argonauts.

The Argonauts face many challenges on the way to Colchis. They first meet the fierce women of Lemnos, who have killed their men, but find them atypically kind. Hercules leaves the crew, and the Argonauts meet an oracle, Phineus. The sons of Boreas, the North Wind, help Phineus by driving off some terrible Harpies who foul his food whenever he tries to eat. Phineus gives the Argonauts information that helps them pass safely through their next challenge—the Symplegades, gigantic rocks that smash together when a ship sail through them. After narrowly avoiding conflict with the Amazons, bloody women warriors, and passing by the chained Prometheus, the Argonauts finally arrive at Colchis.

Though more trials await here, Hera and Aphrodite help Jason. Like Pelias, Aetes pretends to want to give Jason the Fleece but first demands that he complete two tasks that are designed to kill him. Aphrodite sends Cupid to make Aetes’s daughter, a witch named Medea, fall in love with Jason and help him through the tasks. The first challenge is to yoke two fierce magical bulls with hooves of bronze and breath of fire, and Medea gives Jason an ointment that makes him invincible. The second task is to use the bulls to plow a field and sow it with dragon’s teeth, which causes armed men to spring up from the earth and attack Jason. Medea tells him that if he throws a rock in the middle of the armed men, they will attack each other, not him. After Jason’s success, Aetes plots to kill the Argonauts at night, but Medea again intercedes, warning Jason and enabling him to steal the Fleece by putting its guardian serpent to sleep. Medea joins the Argonauts and flees back to Greece. On the way home, she commits the ultimate act of love for Jason: to help evade the ship’s pursuers, she kills her own brother, Apsyrtus.

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